Climate change is globally recognized as a serious challenge to humanity. Taking into account the role of human activities, the release of carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere causes the greenhouse effect, as the measurements of global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have shown significant increases, with increases in global average air temperature. The effects of changing climate conditions include temperature changes in the ocean and its oxidation, widespread melting of snow and ice slabs, extreme weather events, which in turn create risk of forest fires, landslides and floods, loss of biodiversity, arable land and water resources.
Given the global nature of the processes of climate change, the policy of Bulgaria in the area is determined by the international commitments undertaken by the country’s ratification of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol on one hand and the other – by the European legislation in this area.
On 22nd of April 2016, 175 countries, including Bulgaria, signed the Paris Climate Agreement, which undoubtedly marks a historic breakthrough – after many years of negotiations, the countries came to the conclusion that the only response is the shared actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, setting a global goal of limiting global warming to 2 degrees Celsius and a vision for the ambitious target of 1.5 degrees.
The Ministry of Environment and Water conducts the overall state policy on climate change mitigation, assisted by the National Expert Committee on Climate Change as an advisory body. For the purpose of application and implementation of the country’s commitments under international, European and national legislation on climate change, Directiorate Policy on Climate Change is structured within the Ministry.
Bulgaria actively participates in the global efforts to mitigate climate change and adapt to the changes that already have taken place. Since 2014 the Climate Change Limitation Act is active. The Third National Action Plan on Climate Change is being implemented and the preparation of a national adaptation strategy is underway. Bulgaria participates successfully in the European trading scheme for greenhouse gas emissions with 127 installations throughout the country. Along with the other member states of the European Union, Bulgaria will fulfill a common goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with at least 40 % by 2030 with the adoption of the policy framework on climate and energy by 2030.