The land resources of Bulgaria, harmoniously complemented by a favorable physical and geographical location, are among the most valuable natural resources. The soil cover is characterized by great variety due to sufficient diversity of soil forming factors, including 42 types.
The soil resources of Bulgaria generally have a high productive, regulatory and buffer functions potential and are subjected to natural and anthropogenic degradation, which adversely affects the functioning of ecosystems. The intensification of agricultural production can lead to accelerated degradation processes – erosion, salinization, acidification, water pollution, loss of biodiversity, to unfavorable for agriculture and environment extent. The damage of soil is a result of pollution with heavy metals and metalloids, plant protection products (pesticides), resistent organic pollutants, including petroleum products, unregulated waste disposal on soil surface, mining industry activities.
The policy on soil protection is carried out by the Ministry, assisted by Directorate Waste management and soil protection, in accordance with EU and national legislation – Environment Protection Act, Soil Protection Act, Protection of Agricultural Land Act, Waste Management, Protection against Harmful Effects of Chemical Substances Act, strategic documents – National Action Program for Sustainable Land Management and Desertification Combat 2014-2020.
The main activities of the soil protection are related to the harmonization of the Bulgarian legislation with the regulations of EU in the field of conservation, sustainable use and restoration of land and soils; participation in the elaboration of documents at European level; development of legislation, strategies, programs, assessments and analyzes; coordination of activities of the committments under the UN Convention on Desertification Combat, National Strategy and Action Plan to combat desertification and land degradation and measures for their implementation; implementation of preventive, current and ex-post control over the implementation provisions of the Soil Act and regulations.
The sustainable soil management is a balance to jointly support functions of the land resources for the benefit of both environment and society.