As a result of human activity, the elements of the environment are further enriched with natural and artificial radionuclides, which reallocate spatially.
For the purpose of early detection of deviations from limits of radiation parameters in the main components of the environment /air, water, soil/ and provision of updated information to the competent institutions and the public, a National system for radiological monitoring of the environment, led by Minister of environment and water through the Executive Environment Agency, is in charge.
The parameters undergoing radiological environmental monitoring are gamma background (power of gamma radiation dose), volumetric activity of natural and technogenic radionuclides in the air, specific activity of natural and artificial radionuclides in arable soils, building materials, waste and sediments, total alpha and beta activity and content of natural uranium, radium -226 and tritium in surface, ground and waste water.
Monitoring is done by:
automated monitoring system for continuous monitoring of gamma radiation background: consists of 26 local monitoring stations measuring dose rate; stations are located throughout the country, they perform continuous operation and send data to the central station of the Executive Environment Agency;
laboratory analysis activities: sampling and laboratory analyzes conducted by laboratories for radiation measurements in Sofia, Burgas, Varna, Vratsa, Montana, Pleven, Plovdiv and Stara Zagora; information from the laboratory analyzes is reported at the headquarters of the Executive Environment Agency and stored in a national database.
Based on the results of the radiological monitoring quarterly newsletters and a National report on the status and protection of the environment in Bulgaria with a section on “Radiation status of environment” are issued.
The data from the radiological monitoring is reported annualy to the European Commission, where it is collected in the European database and published in the Annual Report on levels of radioactivity in the environment of the countries of the European Community.